A 4 minute read written by

Tarjei Skjærset

14.12.2019

In this article I would like to introduce you to two common composition operators
and explain some of their utility, using first a made up example, and then an
example from the real world. These operators are all about composing functions
of slightly weird types. For while regular function composition combines functions
of types `a -> b`

and `b -> c`

, these guys concern themselves with combining
functions of types which don't naturally fit perfectly together.

The Kleisli arrow is often written using the fishbone operator.
`f >=> g`

is the Kleisli composition of the functions `f`

and `g`

with the following abstract types.

```
f: a -> M b
g: b -> M c
f >=> g : a -> M c
```

If we consider lists of numbers as a concrete example, the types would be

```
f: Num -> List Num
g: Num -> List Num
```

and their composition would also have the type `Int -> List Int`

.
Such a function might for instance be the square root function, such as

```
4 -> [2, -2]
9 -> [3, -3]
...
```

If you're using complex numbers you can also consider the n'th root function,
where it will produce a list of `n`

roots.

The function `doubleSquareRoot`

which takes the square root of a number twice
can be defined as the Kleisli composition of this square root function with itself.

`doubleSquareRoot = sqrt >=> sqrt`

To understand what `doubleSquareRoot 16`

will evaluate to, we will first consider
the first `sqrt`

evaluation.
`sqrt 16`

will produce `[4, -4]`

.
For each of the results in this list, the next `sqrt`

function will be evaluated:

```
sqrt 4 == [2, -2]
sqrt -4 == [2i, -2i]
```

These results are then consolidated to produce the final result.

`doubleSquareRoot 16 == [2, -2, 2i, -2i]`

This technique can be used to chain together many computations to produce a larger result. When thinking about lists this can be understood as modeling problems with many results such as finding roots, or maybe finding the possible next moves in a graph traversal problem.

## A real world example

At work we have recently been experimenting with using F# for a simple web api. An endpoint might look like

```
let updateEvent id =
getBody<Models.WriteModel>
>> Result.map models.writeToDomain
>> Result.bind (Service.updateEvent id)
>> Result.map commitTransaction
>> Result.map models.domainToView
```

This constructs a larger function using the regular `>>`

function composition operator.
The input for this function will be a `context`

object which contains the body of the
HTTP request as well as a reference to the database, which the `Service`

uses.

We use `Result.map`

to handle errors along the way using the built-in `Result`

type.
For instance `getBody`

might fail if the incomming JSON cannot be parsed as a `Models.WriteModel`

type.
The `Result.bind`

function reveals that the `Service.updateEvent`

function itself
may fail and produce a `Result.Error`

.

This seems like it will work, until you consider which functions needs use of the context object.
`getBody`

obviously needs the context to access the HTTP body.
In addition, both `Service.updateEvent`

and `commitTransaction`

needs a reference to the database.
The way we solve this is to consider `Service.updateEvent id`

not as a function from the domain
model to `Result<DomainModel>`

but as a function from the domain model to `ctx -> Result<DomainModel>`

.
That is, a function which takes domain models and produce domain models and can fail but also needs a
context.
That might sound and indeed be confusing, but if you don't think too much about it, it kind of makes sense.
Using Kleisli composition's closely related cousin the bind operator `>>=`

, we can rewrite our function.[0]

```
let updateEvent id =
getBody<Models.WriteModel>
>> Result.map (models.writeToDomain id)
>>= Result.bind (Service.updateEvent id)
>>= Result.map commitTransaction
>> Result.map models.domainToView
```

It's a small change, but now our two functions can access the context. The way I think about it, is that this is regular composition of functions, but when you need the context object, you inject it using the bind operator instead of regular composition. And that is all you need to know to use this pattern productively!

## Technicalities

If you're interested, the bind operator may be defined as follows.

`f >>= g = fun ctx -> g (f ctx) ctx`

The reason we are using the bind operator here instead of the Kleisli fishbone operator,
is that the very first function *only* takes the context as a parameter.
Had the first function also taken a parameter in addition to the context,
you would just replace all instaces of `>>=`

with `>=>`

.
The implementation of the Kleisli arrow might then look like

```
f >=> g =
fun x ->
fun ctx ->
g (f x ctx) ctx
```

It might be difficult to see the similarities between functions that produce lists of things and functions that produce functions which need contexts, but they are there. They have some similar properties and can be understood in the same way. And of course, if you don't need to, you don't have to think too much about it to be able to use composition operators such as the bind and Kleisli arrows effectively.

[0]: It is well known that monads don't compose,
and both `Result`

and functions which need contexts are monads.
This is only a problem if you're trying to write code that works generically with
two different types of abstract monads, and this is where people use monad transformers.
However, we only need these specific, concrete monads, which allow us
to write a single `>>=`

bind operator which handles all of our needs.